International Keyboard Shortcut Day 2021: I shortcut, therefore I am

And now for something completely different. You might call this a philosophical reflection on, of all things, the use of keyboard shortcuts.

I did not do a post for IKSD last year (life got in the way a bit) and in previous years, my posts were aimed at teaching some aspect of using keyboard shortcuts. But this year, I want to take a step back and speak to the mouse-using fraternity and present a case for why we should all be using keyboard shortcuts more.

The most common argument for using keyboard shortcuts is that they help us work faster. And while that is certainly true, I suspect it probably isn’t very compelling. I think most people don’t care, and think to themselves that the way they work is just fine. Most people, truth be told, don’t want to work faster. If you disagree, and you’re still a mouser, you’re living a lie—you’d better start learning to use keyboard shortcuts, pronto.

But is there perhaps a more compelling motivation for using keyboard shortcuts than just “working faster”?

The answer, I’ve found, might be in the work of Marshall McLuhan and after him Neil Postman, who explored, amongst others, how technology affects us. I confess that I haven’t read any of McLuhan’s books (I’ve read about his work, but haven’t read his work), but will note that he is famous for his statement “the medium is the message.” I have read a number of Postman’s books, and while he qualifies McLuhan’s statement somewhat, he does point out that the medium has a very strong impact on the message, so much so that it can subvert and even reverse the message. His book Amusing ourselves to death on the problems of television and, more accurately, moving from a print culture to a visual image culture, is truly thought-provoking. Written in 1985, and thus predating the internet- and social media explosion, its message still rings true today.

Now as far as I know, neither McLuhan nor Postman wrote about the mouse and the keyboard, but I will take it upon myself to extend that idea here. Let me start by making the very simple observation that the keyboard and the mouse represent two very different ways of interacting with your computer. In the simplest way I can phrase it, the mouse integrates vision and action, while the keyboard dissociates vision and action. What do I mean by that? Well, when we move the mouse, we are not looking at our mouse-moving hand. Rather, we are looking at the mouse pointer on the screen as if it were where our hand was moving. There is an almost direct relationship between how we move our hand, and how the mouse pointer moves in response. The keyboard is different. If we can touch-type (type without looking at the keyboard), then what we see happening on the screen bears, at least in two-dimensional space, no relation to how our hands are moving. If the program allows, we can manipulate very different parts of the screen with the keyboard. In fact, with the keyboard, I can make things happen on different screens (when I have them set up), without having to drag the mouse pointer across from one screen to the other. Even if we cannot touch-type (i.e., we cannot type without looking at the keyboard), there is still dissociation—we are then looking at our hands moving across the keyboard, knowing that something different is happening on the screen.

Why would this be important? Well, the first issue again is the obvious one—speed. Because we are freed from the constraints of having to physically move (with our hand on the mouse) through the two-dimensional space of the screen, we can get things done faster. Additionally, we use one hand on the mouse, but two on the keyboard, which is, again, faster.

However, I think this still misses the most important point. This dissociation forces us to think differently about using the computer.

And I would argue, think better about using the computer. With the keyboard, with training, even the physical movement of our hands across the keyboard to execute a certain shortcut eventually becomes unconscious, just as, for a seasoned typist, all hand movement during typing is unconscious. When using keyboard shortcuts, then, we are only thinking about the command we want to employ or the action we want to perform, without actually having to think how to perform it. By contrast, using the mouse means that we always have to interrupt our thought about what we want to do with thought about how to do it—the additional mental effort of moving the mouse through the two-dimensional screen space. The mouse, in other words, is disruptive to our thought. And it is always so, even for seasoned users, because of the medium and the association with physical space in the screen. The keyboard, with practice, is not disruptive. It allows for a fluency of thought in our computer work which the mouse cannot. I would even go so far as to contend that, at least at present, speech controlled computing is still partially space bound (we have to tell the computer which word to select, etc.). At present, then, even voice-controlled computing is not as dissociative as keyboard computing (although it might be quicker for some).

Of course, this does not mean that the mouse had no place at all, and there is work which requires the mouse (e.g., CAD work), but it is normally work related to physical space. Text, for example, does not. User interface interaction, normally, also not.

So, to summarise. Why should we use keyboard shortcuts? Because a praxis which employs keyboard shortcuts is one that trains us to work, not simply faster, but at a deeper level, to work more efficiently, to think more clearly about the task we are performing. It is one where we can think freely about what we need to do, without having to think about how to do it. Keyboard shortcuts don’t just help us work faster, they help us work better. And that is something worth thinking about. I, at least, find it compelling. Do you?


International Keyboard Shortcut Day 2018: The Ultimate Excel 2016 keyboard shortcut list

To download the list, click the button below. Please feel free to share it, but please do not remove the attribution. Read on for an explanation of how it all works.

Yeah, I know, I’m a little late. Not late for IKSD, but late for posting an Excel 2016 keyboard shortcut list. Come on, it’s 2018 already, and Excel 2019 has already been foisted upon the masses, which just again shows how marketing screws everything up–the same way retail stores are putting up their Christmas decorations at the same time they are taking down their halloween decorations (i.e., right about now), way before most of us are even thinking of Christmas, but rather just trying to get through the inevitable pile-up of work that accumulates at the end of each year.

But I digress. I think this list will still be fine for Excel 2019/Excel 365, and to commemorate International Keyboard Shortcut Day, I am sharing this on my blog. I made this list for a book I was writing on Excel (which has stalled a bit, due to my life circumstances changing), and I modified it considerably in prepation for a presentation I did for Danielle Stein Fairhurst’s Financial Modelling in Excel Meetup group in Sydney.

The ultimate Excel keyboard shortcut list

Now, let me defend my claim. Just do a search for “ultimate Excel keyboard shortcut list” and you will see that there are many claimants to that title, but I am going to be even more brash, and claim to have the ultimate, ultimate list.

Why do I say this?

  1. My list is the only list which is provided as an Excel workbook. Go figure. Imagine creating a list of Excel keyboard shortcuts, and not doing it in Excel? In fact, why do any list of keyboard shortcuts and not do it in Excel? Show some dedication to the cause! Excel is great for lists like this, because it provides us with a searchable, sortable, filterable list.
  2. My list is the most complete list I could find. Really. I challenge you to find more Excel keyboard shortcuts in one location than in my workbook.
  3. My list covers both Windows and Mac. I am not a routine Mac user, but I took a Macbook and worked through every keyboard shortcut there. I am aware that there might be some discrepancies between a desktop Mac and a Macbook, and I confess I did not dig into these, if there is one shortcoming.
  4. The extra information I provide on the keyboard shortcuts. See below.

How the list works

The worksheet has 11 columns, and it is the combination of information across these columns that I consider to be so valuable:

  • Access
  • Key
  • Keyboard shortcut Windows
  • Keyboard shortcut Mac
  • Function
  • Group
  • Subgroup
  • Scope
  • Contextual variant?
  • Toggle
  • Comment

Here is a short explanation of what the purpose of each of the columns is, in a slight re-ordering of their position on the worksheet.

Keyboard shortcut Windows & Mac

These two columns (C and D) contain the actual keyboard shortcuts. It might be worth noting that, for the Windows shortcuts, where keys on a standard keyboard layout contain two symbols that are governed by the Shift key (e.g., the number keys, or ” ‘), I have used the symbol which will be entered if that key is entered with/without the Shift key, depending on whether Shift is used in the shortcut (see Access below). This is evident even with keyboard shortcuts using letters, for example, Ctrl+a and Ctrl+Shift+A.

Access & Key

These two columns help with sorting and filtering. Essentially, most keyboard shortcuts (with the exception of function keys) consist of a normal key on the keyboard (which is listed in column B: Key), and a combination of one, two or three “access” keys (which are listed in column A: Access).
While these columns may seem to be superfluous in that this information is already in column C: Keyboard shortcut, I have elaborated a bit by, for example, listing both symbols found on a single key on a standard Windows keyboard layout. These columns are also useful in that it makes it slightly easier to see, for example, which keyboard shortcuts use a certain access key (granted, Excel’s filter allows that to be done on column C as well), or which keyboard shortcuts make use of a certain key (a little harder, but not impossible, to do with the filter on column C).


This column describes the actual action performed by the keyboard shortcut, or, if it does different things in different contexts, then it elaborates those differences. Here, again, I believe my list has a lot more detail than other lists out there.

Group & Subgroup

Some keyboard shortcut lists are too rigid: Ctrl+A does this, Ctrl+B does that, Ctrl+C…. The better lists organise the keyboard shortcuts into various themes, and Group and Subgroup in columns F:G are my themes. I have 13 top level groups in column F, which are subdivided into 39 second level groups in column G (although 7 of the top level groups are not subdivided, and count as 1 each in that list of 39). To see my breakdown, go to the Lists worksheet. I have used some elementary conditional formatting (horizontal borders) to indicate the different groups (solid border) and subgroups (dotted border).


Keyboard shortcuts often work in a variety of contexts. It is useful to know this, because if you know that a keyboard shortcut works in more contexts than only the program where you learnt it, then you could be adventurous and try it in other programs, and so extend the time-saving benefit of that keyboard shortcut. I try to indicate this here using one of three different scopes:

  • Excel: This keyboard shortcut works like this only in Microsoft Excel (e.g., Ctrl+E for Flash Fill)
  • Office system: This keyboard shortcut works like this for all (or most) of the Microsoft Office programs (e.g., Ctrl+H for Replace, which is Ctrl+R in many other programs)
  • System: This keyboard shortcut works like this for most programs (e.g., Ctrl+C for Copy).

Contextual variant?

The aim of this column is to indicate whether the same shortcut does different things when used in different contexts. I have simplified things by using a formula to count whether the shortcut appears more than once in the list (which is indicative of such variations), but there are some exceptions, where I have entered the contextual variations all in one row. These are set manually, and indicated using some conditional formatting.


Some keyboard shortcuts work like switches: Do it once, and it turns a feature on. Do it again, and the feature is turned off (e.g., Ctrl+B for Bold formatting). This is indicated in this column (column J).


As if all of the above was not enough, in this last column (column K), I provide some additional insights for a few keyboard shortcuts.

Duplicate shortcuts

There is no column for this, but some shortcuts are indicated in grey formatting across the row. Where you encounter this it will be on the second (or third) duplicate shortcut. I have sorted the list in a specific way, so that the shortcuts I commonly use for a task are listed first, and where more than one shortcut exists for a specific task, the preferred shortcut (IMHO) is listed first, and not in grey, and subsequent shortcuts that do the same thing are shown in grey. Ctrl+B vs Ctrl+2 for Bold formatting is an example of this.

Some interesting stats

As you will see from the explanations above, it becomes an interesting exercise to count keyboard shortcuts. Do we count contextual variants (the same shortcut that does different things in different contexts) once, or once for each variation? Do we count duplicate shortcuts (another shortcut that performs the same function as an existing shortcut) or exclude them? And some things are not really true shortcuts (Ctrl+Shift+Enter is an example). My list has 255 rows. If we exclude the variants and the duplicates, we can reduce that down to 207. Comparing OS versions of Excel, 205 of those work in Windows (i.e., two are unique to Mac), and only 147 work for Mac. Is the Mac OS inherently more keyboard-unfriendly, or did Microsoft neglect it’s duty in compiling keyboard shortcuts for Excel for Mac? It is noteworthy the amount of confusion Mac introduces with Ctrl vs Cmd, as some shortcuts work with both, some with only one, and some do different things for Ctrl than for Cmd (compare Ctrl+G to Cmd+G on Mac). Also, that comparison (205 vs 147) is unfair, because a lot of the Windows shortcuts relate to operating the ribbons and menus (or is it unfair?). So if I exclude them, using a pivot table with a slicer, I get this comparison of Windows and Mac keyboard shortcuts, according to my top level categories.

Group Windows Keyboard shortcuts Mac Keyboard shortcuts Mac vs Windows %
Calculation 5 1 20.0%
Editing 78 64 82.1%
File operations 6 5 83.3%
Formatting 9 9 100.0%
Help 1 1 100.0%
Macros 3 3 100.0%
Names 5 3 60.0%
Navigation 22 20 90.9%
Outlining 3 3 100.0%
Selection 33 32 97.0%
Tables & Filtering 3 3 100.0%
Windows 7 2 28.6%
Grand Total 175 146 83.4%

The ultimate list of keyboard shortcuts

Ok. That’s enough talk. Here is the list.

Please feel free to share it, but please do not remove the attribution.


Using keyboard shortcuts for Windows Explorer

In support of International Keyboard Shortcut day, I want to increase everyone’s productivity in using Windows Explorer.

Now I must add that one of the best productivity steps you can make is not to use Windows Explorer! I use Total Commander for most of my file management duties, and there are several (hundred) good reasons why I do. But having said that, if you work on Windows, you cannot really escape Windows Explorer completely, as it is the native file management tool, so most programs, when opening or saving files, simply make use of Windows Explorer for that file management portion. So even if you are working in Word or Excel or a multitude of other programs, when you open or save a file, you are actually using Windows Explorer for that action. And, I have found that some these basic principles described below, with a little creativity, can also be used when doing file management on a Mac (although I am not showing that in this post).

Thus, learning to use Windows Explorer effectively will prove to be a big boost to your productivity (just think how many times you browse to open or save a file each day, and the gains will be readily apparent).

To distinguish between these contexts I will speak, below, of working in Windows Explorer or of working in File Management (some of the shortcuts only work in one of those contexts, or work differently between the two).

I will also not cover “standard” keyboard techniques, like using Tab to move between parts of the window, pressing Enter as the default action, selecting items (files/folders, in this instance) using Ctrl or Shift in combination with the mouse, etc.

One last note. These are specifically for Windows Explorer, meaning they will work for Windows 7, most of them will work for Vista, and a smaller subset will also work for Windows XP. Having said that, apart from the ribbon addition with its own set of navigation tools, most of these functions will also work with File Explorer (i.e., Windows 8 or Windows 10), although I might miss something new from those over here.

Just to help with the explanations below, Figure 1 shows my names for the various parts of the interface, so that you know what I am referring to.

Figure 1    Windows Explorer Interface

Getting there

Charity begins at home, they say. So keyboard shortcuts should start with actually accessing the tools. For many programs (including all the Office programs), these keyboard shortcuts will get you started:

Listing 1    Shortcuts for Opening or Accessing Windows Explorer

File Save As dialog (from most applications)

Ctrl + O
File Open dialog (from most applications)

ÿ + E
Open Windows Explorer application

The basics

Like most Microsoft programs (I hate working in programs where the developers have not included a good stable of keyboard shortcuts), the Windows Explorer interface comes with a good set of keyboard shortcuts, only they are perhaps less easy to discover than the more traditional interfaces.


Listing 2    Shortcuts for Working with the Windows Explorer Interface

Alt + D or F4
Select Folder Address box (Alt + D selects the entry in the box, F4 selects the box and shows a history of previous entries)

Ctrl + F or F3 or Ctrl + E
Select Search box

Refresh the current window

F6 or Tab
Moves among panes in Windows Explorer (Adding Shift reverses the direction)

Alt + P
Toggle the preview pane (one of my favourite “hidden” shortcuts)

Ctrl + Scroll
Switch between views (e.g., List, Details, Small/Medium/Large/Extra Large icons). (I wish there were a keyboard only version of this, so if you know of one, enlighten me. I find the scroll functionality on this particular tool a bit fiddly).

Cancel in Windows File Management

Ctrl + N
Opens a new window in Windows Explorer

Ctrl + W
Closes the current window in Windows Explorer

Toggle full screen view—can also be done using standard Windows 7 navigation tools, ÿ+Up Arrow for full screen (maximize), or ÿ+Down Arrow for normal size (restore)


Listing 3    Shortcuts for File and Folder Management

Ctrl + Shift + N
Create new folder


Delete selected files or folders (to recycle bin)

Shift + Del
Delete selected files or folders (semi) permanently

Alt + Enter
Open Properties dialog for selected item

Ctrl + Click
Selects multiple individual items

Ctrl + Click and drag with mouse
Copy the item (Windows appends ” – copy” to the file or folder name)

Ctrl + Shift + Click and drag with mouse
Create a shortcut (*.lnk) for the selected item (Windows appends ” – shortcut” to the file or folder name)


Listing 4    Shortcuts for Windows Explorer Navigation

Alt + Right Arrow
Follow breadcrumbs forward

Alt + Left Arrow
Follow breadcrumbs backward

Alt + Up Arrow
Moves up one folder level in Windows Explorer

Displays the previous folder in Windows Explorer (i.e., same as Alt + Up Arrow).
Moves up one folder level in Windows File Management

A short explanation of the breadcrumbs is in order. As you navigate through your various folders, Windows Explorer maintains a list of all the locations you visited. These locations are not always in linear succession (i.e., in a succession of child- or parent folders). For example, if you are in a certain sub-sub-sub-sub-folder of an external drive, and you click on one of the shortcuts in the Favorites section of the Windows Explorer folder pane (don’t forget these, they represent one place where the mouse can save you a lot of time, although they can be accessed in about the same amount of time with the keyboard shortcuts already shown). This move will have taken you to a different folder on a different drive. You can click on the Back button (rather press Alt + Left Arrow) to go back to that sub-sub-sub-sub-folder of your external drive). And having done that, you can click Forward (rather press Alt + Right Arrow) to go back once more to Documents. Pressing F4 (not Alt + D will show you the complete list of your previous locations, and you can move up and down that list with the Up Arrow and Down Arrow arrows, and press Enter to select the location of your choice.

Folder pane

These shortcuts work only in the folder pane on the left of the file browser window:

Listing 5    Windows Explorer Folder Pane Shortcuts

Right Arrow
Expands the subfolders of the currently selected folder or goes to the first child if already expanded

Numeric Keypad +
Expands the subfolders of the currently selected folder

Numeric Keypad *
Expands everything under the currently selected folder (don’t do this on C:\)!

Left Arrow
Collapses the subfolders of the currently selected folder or goes to the parent if already collapsed

Numeric Keypad –
Collapses the subfolders of the currently selected folder

Ctrl + Shift + E
Expands the Navigation pane to the folder in which the selected item is found.

More advanced bits

Remember that if you have clicked in the file list of Windows Explorer, you can easily jump to certain files by typing the first letters of a name (you have to type reasonably quickly). So, for example, in Figure 1 I can get to the WordPress folder (and bypass the Word folder) by typing “wordp.” Also, if I wanted to move through the various folders starting with a “c,” I could just press “c” repeatedly with a short break in between.

Figure 2    Selecting an item by typing its name

Then, of course, one of my personal favourites, is typing the destination I want to get it, instead of browsing by a series of mouse clicks. This relies on using the file syntax that derives pretty much all the way from MS-DOS. The first thing you need to know is that you can specify lower-level folders by typing their names. You specify (see below) higher level folders with “..\” and the root with only “\” (all sans the quotes, obviously). You can introduce a succession of lower-level folders by typing the folder names, separated by “\” (again sans quotes).

Listing 6    Text Entries Used for Specifying Higher-Level Folders

Move one folder up (can be combined x number of times for x number of levels).

In Windows Explorer, takes you to the root of the main drive.
In Windows File Management, takes you to the root of the current drive.

Specifies folder ccc which is a subfolder of bbb, which is itself a subfolder of aaa, which is itself a subfolder of the current folder.

The best way to demonstrate the power of this technique is with a short video. I am saving a page from the Daily Dose of Excel blog by printing it as a pdf from Chrome. This is relevant for a tool that I am developing, and so I want to keep this, and look at it when I work on this tool. I obviously have to indicate where the pdf must be saved. I last saved a pdf in another folder two levels down in the Documents folder, so I first have to move two levels up (which I do by typing “..\..\”), and then down to “Computer Training\Excel\Tips – Excel\Macros\.” This is a lot of scrolling and clicking with the mouse. However, note that as I type the address into the file name box, Windows Explorer gives me all folder and files that match what I have typed. I then use this to select the folders I want in a fraction of the time it would take to do with the mouse (on an unrepresentative sample of one trial, 13s with the keyboard vs 20s with the mouse, for a 35% increase in efficiency!). Also note that by typing the folder names, I “lose” the file name, but Windows Explorer “remembers” it, so that when I eventually reach the folder I am aiming for, the name is given back (I can, of course, then type a different name if I want).

Video 1    Using typing to select a folder or file

One last tip. Sometimes, I have to “load” a file to a certain program. As one example: When I using the Spreadsheet Compare tool to compare two workbooks. I already have Windows Explorer open at the location where the file is (actually, I can do this trick much quicker in Total Commander, but this blog post is about Windows Explorer). In my program (e.g., Spreadsheet Compare) I have to click on the browse button and this opens the Windows Explorer file browser at a predefined location—e.g., a default location like “Documents” or the last used location, neither of which is what I want. But I can copy the address of the location for my file (in Total Commander I can copy the file name with its location, which means I often do not even have to click on Browse). I do this either by clicking in the Windows Explorer Folder Address box and copying the full location there (see Figure 3), or I can, of course, eschew the mouse and do it all with Alt + D, Ctrl + C, Esc (and I’m done before you even had a chance to see what I’m doing!). [As a side note, F4 doesn’t work as well as Alt + D for this one.] Now I can paste the location into the Spreadsheet Compare file browser (of course, I jumped there from Windows Explorer with Alt + Tab), press Enter, and jump straight to the location where the file is. Better yet, I can type “\” and start typing the file name, and Windows Explorer will give me the names that match—even quicker!

Figure 3    Selecting a folder address from the Address box

One last trick. You can also apply filters in the file name box. So, for example, in Figure 4 I want to see only the Excel files, not all the other files, so I type *.xlsx and press Enter. This will filter the display and show me only Excel (and only xlsx Excel) files.

Figure 4    Applying a filter in the file name box


A cool browser keyboard shortcut

I am working on a big keyboard shortcut post for 4 November—International Keyboard Shortcut Day in 2015 ;-)—but in the mean time, I made a little discovery today that I felt I should share.

Some time ago, I wrote about learning keyboard shortcuts. And although I often fail, I do still try to practice what I preach (in fact, I have used three already in the first two paragraphs of this post—two for adding the hyperlinks and one for the italics).

In that previous post, I wrote that one way we often discover keyboard shortcuts is by accident—for example, when we press something on the keyboard we did not intend to. You may argue that that makes keyboard shortcuts dangerous—we intend pressing one thing, but press something else, and then we have something bad happen. I counter by pointing out that I am hard pressed to think of a keyboard shortcut for which the handy undo (Ctrl+Z) does not apply. Furthermore, and more to the point, the mouse is also dangerous, if not even more dangerous. I cannot think when I have caused “catastrophic” (i.e., unrecoverable, or at least hard-to-recover) damage with the keyboard, but I can think of several instances with the mouse. How many times have you dragged a file or an e-mail, and dropped it (accidentally, of course) into the wrong folder, and spent ages trying to find your now missing item? Enough said.

Today, I discovered another shortcut like that—I wanted to close a tab in Chrome, and instead of pressing Ctrl+F4, I pressed Ctrl+4 (just a little South of where I wanted to be…). Now when I have multiple browser tabs open (which is all of the time!), I navigate between tabs with the old faithful Ctrl+Tab (or Ctrl+Shift+Tab to reverse direction). However, through this fortuitous mistake, I discovered that when I have multiple tabs open, I can easily jump to a tab by pressing Ctrl+x, where x is the tab’s position number (from left to right). Yes, this will probably not work when you have a gazillion tabs open, but if you have a handful open that will allow you to count at a glance, this will halve the tab navigation time.I also tend to have some standard tabs open in standard positions (GMail, my website dashboard, etc.), so this will help me jump to those tabs very quickly from now on.

A little further testing has shown that the way this shortcut works is that Ctrl+1 through Ctrl+8 take you through the first 8 tabs, while Ctrl+9 handily takes you to the very last tab.

My next step was to immediately test it in other browsers, and I am happy to report that, like numerous other browser shortcuts (e.g., Ctrl+T to open a new tab, Alt+D to select the address bar), it works in Internet Explorer (I’ll test it in Edge later) and Firefox as well. So there you have it: One new shortcut in three new contexts.

So this is one small incremental improvement in productivity (made more so by the multiple browsers in which it works), but the important thing to remember with using keyboard shortcuts is that it all adds up—the gain from using one shortcut one time is minimal, but the gain from using many shortcuts multiple times is huge!


Learning Keyboard Shortcuts

This week (Week 26 of 2014, for the Excel aficionados), we have had a very interesting discussion on the Word-PC e-mail list about keyboard shortcuts. This led to me sending a mail to the list about how to teach oneself keyboard shortcuts (or, more precisely, the system I use to teach myself—and I am still continuously learning—keyboard shortcuts). Since I realise that it might prove useful to others, I have modified that mail slightly for this blog post. If you find what I write below useful, this topic is discussed in greater detail in my book on Word, together with many others topics that you might benefit from.

First up, how not to learn keyboard shortcuts: Don’t search for a list and try to commit it to memory. This fails, because firstly we are overloading our brains with too much information in too short a space of time (any student can verify this three weeks after an exam). Secondly, we are dealing with the list as an abstract thing, and not relating it to our use.

My own experience has been that a very simple discipline (which I will get to shortly) has worked very well for learning keyboard shortcuts.

Before that, though, it is useful to examine how we discover keyboard shortcuts. Yes, lists are useful for that—every time I see an article on keyboard shortcuts, I make certain that I read it (I just picked up a new Excel keyboard shortcut this week in that manner). Second, we all (or at least those who type as inaccurately as I do) have had the experience of pressing something on the keyboard, and seeing something go haywire (e.g. we wanted Shift+R for an uppercase R, but hit Ctrl+R and right-aligned our paragraph). Normally we just undo (Ctrl+Z), but I normally take some time out, try to see if I can figure out what I just hit (I will sometimes undo and try to recreate the keyboard shortcut with what I thought I was typing). I will also evaluate whether this keyboard shortcut is useful for me—if not (e.g., the keyboard shortcuts in Word for Danish characters are some that, no offense to the Danes, I hope I never have to use), then I just forget about it and carry on with my life. If it does appear to be useful, then I will set about learning it. Also, it pays to be observant. It amazes me that people look at menus, and never see (i.e., observe) the keyboard shortcuts listed in those menus (of course, since Office 2007, the Office keyboard shortcuts are displayed in better-hidden tooltips—yet another way Microsoft seems intent on de-cluttering by dumbing down).

One other note before I get to the learning bit. Some keyboard shortcuts are system-wide—meaning they will either work on the OS level, or will work for almost all programs known to man (if you will excuse the exaggeration). Examples are Ctrl+C for Copy, Ctrl+P for Print, Ctrl+S for Save, etc.). Some are, for want of a better term, platform-wide (e.g., Ctrl+H for Replace in all of the Microsoft Office programs, while Ctrl+R does the same in many other programs). And some are program-specific (e.g., Ctrl+Alt+M for a comment in Word, which is Shift+F2 in Excel). If I am working in a new program, I will (after having duly saved my work), freely experiment in that program with keyboard shortcuts that I believe would work there (i.e., those keyboard shortcuts that are in the first two categories I mentioned). I’ve never had a computer meltdown as a result of this (yet!), and it gives me, so to speak, more bang for my buck for the effort of learning keyboard shortcuts.

So, how do we learn keyboard shortcuts?

Still not there yet…. Some keyboard shortcuts are mnemonic (Ctrl+B for Bold, Ctrl+I for italics, Ctrl+C for Copy—and, on that point, notice the position of the X,C,V keys on a qwerty keyboard, and remember Cut, Copy, Paste—and, in Word, Ctrl+L for Left alignment, Ctrl+R for Right alignment, and Ctrl+J for Justified alignment, etc.). Unfortunately, not all keyboard shortcuts can be mnemonic (e.g., Ctrl+C is already taken, so Centre alignment in Word becomes Ctrl+E). Obviously, mnemonic keyboard shortcuts are going to be easier to remember, but we need to go further.

So, how do we learn keyboard shortcuts?

Firstly, one or two at a time. This overcomes the first mistake I noted at the start. Sometimes I will do a handful at a time (e.g., when I discovered various commonly used number formats in Excel with Ctrl+Shift+1 (Ctrl+!), Ctrl+Shift+2 (Ctrl+@), Ctrl+Shift+3 (Ctrl+#), Ctrl+Shift+4 (Ctrl+$), Ctrl+Shift+5 (Ctrl+%), Ctrl+Shift+6 (Ctrl+^)—although I never use the last one in my line of work). But when I do teach myself a whole bunch of keyboard shortcuts, there will be some relation between them, as in the list I just showed here.

Secondly, we want to relate it to usage (thus overcoming the second mistake mentioned above). Allow me to explain, because here I am finally coming to that little discipline that I hinted at. For example, this week I learned that Ctrl+6 hides all objects in an Excel worksheet. If I didn’t get that from a list (I did, in this instance: then I will make a note of it. Now I don’t work with objects in most of my sheets, so it may be two or three weeks before I get an opportunity to use that one. By then, I will have forgotten it. So three weeks from now, most people think to themselves:
“What was that keyboard shortcut for hiding objects again? Arrghh. Can’t remember it. Ah well, that just proves that this keyboard shortcut stuff is a load of junk. I’ll take my mouse, click Home | Find and Select | Selection Pane, and then click on Hide All.”

What I do, in contrast, is use this little discipline: I stop, go back to my list or note, look the keyboard shortcut up, and then use it. This process of using it activates a second memory channel (muscle engrams—go look it up), over and above the cognitive memory process. We all use this, we just don’t think about it. For example, I’m standing in front of the ATM to draw cash, and it’s one of those days where, for the life of me, I can’t remember my PIN number. So what do I do? Hopefully, not pull out the little slip of paper—that everyone can see!—where I scribbled it down. I know people who have had their accounts emptied in this way! No, I make as if I’m going to type the PIN, and suddenly it comes back to me. I am using my muscle engrams (the same things tennis or cricket or any other sport players use to perform those shots so masterfully) to bring back the memory of what my PIN is. In other words, the part of my brain that moves my hand to type my PIN also remembers that action—it is a second memory channel. So when I use that with keyboard shortcuts, I am actually memorising the keyboard shortcut in two different ways (cognitively and “physically”). In fact, even now, I sometimes struggle to recall what a certain keyboard shortcut is, but if I get behind the keyboard and make as if I’m going to do it, I can figure it out again.

Now sure, that process of stopping, looking up the keyboard shortcut, and using it, does take longer than just doing it with the mouse. But it is a short term loss for a long term gain. Once that keyboard shortcut is mastered, I will save a few seconds every time I use it, regaining and overtaking what I have lost in looking it up once or twice.

And one last thing. I know keyboard shortcuts are not for everyone. I must also confess that I am not musophbic (go look it up, although I am twisting the word beyond its original intention), and the mouse has its place—some things really cannot be done without the mouse (some programs, for example, are really not keyboard shortcut friendly) and some things (not many, but they are there) can be done faster with the mouse than the keyboard. Some things, of course, can only be done with the keyboard and mouse in conjunction (macros aside): Did you know that you can select one sentence in Word by holding the Ctrl key while clicking anywhere in that sentence? (This does sometimes trip over abbreviations, though.)

But keyboard shortcuts definitely do help you work faster, and keyboard shortcuts can help out in the most unlikely situations—those that you have never thought of (have you ever tried working with the touchpad of your laptop while seated in a plane going through some turbulence?). So much so that, in addition to keyboard shortcuts, I have memorised quite a few ribbon manipulations on the keyboard (for one example, Alt | JL | F | C to AutoFit a table in Word—I defy you to do it quicker with the mouse than I do with the keyboard. Sure, I could create a keyboard shortcut for that and do it seven split seconds faster, but typing that string is so quick, I hardly see the need.

The question then becomes twofold: So how many keyboard shortcuts do you know, punk? And, more importantly, how many keyboard shortcuts will you know a year from now?